What is the Sandbox?

This "Sandbox" is a place where Code Golf users can get feedback on prospective challenges they wish to post to the main page. This is useful because writing a clear and fully specified challenge on the first try can be difficult. There is a much better chance of your challenge being well received if you post it in the Sandbox first.

Get the Sandbox Viewer to view the sandbox more easily

To add an inline tag to a proposal use shortcut link syntax with a prefix: [tag:king-of-the-hill]

Black Box

Your task is to analyze a given situation for the game Black Box. Given a sequence of guesses and answers, your program is to either print the solution or suggest the next move.

The game

The board consists of 8×8 cells, with edges labeled like this:

I'll probably create nice images here, particularly to make sure that the squares of the board are really square.

abcdefgh
i        I
j        J
k        K
l        L
m        M
n        N
o        O
p        P
ABCDEFGH

The player shoots rays into the interior of the box, where they might get deflected, reflected or absorbed. He is told the position where the ray leaves the black box again, and from that has to deduce the positions of 4 atoms inside the black box.

I'll have to include more of the game rules here, but for now see Wikipedia.

Input and output

Input is a sequence of line, each consisting of two characters. The first denotes the point where the ray of light enters the black box, the second the place where it comes out again. In the case of a reflection, both characters will be equal. In the case of a hit, the second character will be -.

If the input is enough to fully determine the locations of the atoms, then output should be four lines giving the coordinates of each atom. The lines should be two lower case characters each, the first giving the row and the second giving the column of the found solution. The atom positions must be printed in lexicographical order.

If the input is consistent with more than one set of atom positions, then the output should consist of a single line containing a single character, which is the location where the next ray should be shot. That location has to be chosen in such a way that it can help find the solution. This is the case unless all of the atom positions consistent with the input so far would produce the same output for this next ray as well.

Your output has to be terminated by a newline character.

Examples

Let's take the atom configuration the Wikipedia article uses as an example as well:

abcdefgh
i        I
j        J
k O    O K
l        L
m        M
n   O    N
o        O
p      O P
ABCDEFGH

If the input were

cf
D-
Em
HH
Co

then the output should be

kb
kg
nd
pg

but if the input were only

Em
HH

then the output might be for example

K

Scoring

This is code golf, so shortest answer wins. However, I'll only accept answers which are practical in so far as they compute their result in reasonable time. I'd say no more than five minutes on my system where I'll evaluate the answers, and I'll simply hope that correct solutions will be much faster and incorrect ones much slower, so that the speed of my system doesn't make a difference. A submission which gives a wrong answer for one of my test cases will be disqualified until it gets fixed. I will probably point out the problem in a comment to that post.

Create a program with "exact repetition" in its source code

The task is to create a program, with the following restrictions placed on the printable ASCII characters in the source code: choose some k > 0.

• Every non-alphabetic character has to appear exactly k times.
• Every alphabetic character has to appear at most k times.
• This rule differs from the former in order to avoid boring dummy identifiers while still making it a challenge to choose good library functions to call.

Character set definitions used:

Therefore, Joe's password for stackoverflow is: sTcKvRfLwAoEo94$Challenge Create a shortest function to generate a password given the rules above. The code should accept a string type parameter d and return/display the generated password. Rules 1. Only Latin letters from the input should be used. Any other characters should be ignored. 2. Minimum input length is 1 letter. (guys at q.com need passwords as well!) 3. Assume Y is a vowel 4. If vowels or consonants are missing, use 0 accordingly. E.g. input a would result in a01! 5. Shortest code wins List of vowels and consonants US qwerty keyboard • Thanks for the feedback @m.buettner. I meant to say, without using any libraries. The problem is, that people become lazy to think sometimes and just dive straight away to use Linq where a bit of thought will do – mai May 28 '14 at 13:14 • Well actually you can, I'm just checking now. You can do a lot of manipulations on strings without libraries. – mai May 28 '14 at 13:18 • Looping over string characters, concatenation work perfectly. Nevertheless, I've updated the challenge. If a function to depend on a library, it must be included in the character count. – mai May 28 '14 at 13:21 • 1. Strictly speaking, in .Net you don't have strings without libraries. The string keyword is syntactic sugar for a class in mscorlib. 2. As things currently stand, your rule 1 strictly prohibits something and then says what to do if you ignore that prohibition. This is illogical. It's also unclear what "that" in "please inlcude that in characters count" means. Does it mean that each submission should be a program as opposed to a code snippet? If so, state it explicitly. – Peter Taylor May 28 '14 at 13:32 • Hmm.. I don't know how to write it the best way. mscorlib is included by default so that is permissible. I don't want the code to use other libraries as Linq as it's less fun. – mai May 28 '14 at 13:47 • @m.buettner I agree with you. Nevertheless, there will solutions provided in other languages as well (there always are). And I would like the authors of those solutions to think about the best approach in their language of choice without depending on libraries like Linq. – mai May 28 '14 at 14:00 • Does Rule 2 mean ONLY vowels/consonants to be used from input? What about symbols *@#$ etc. Depending on that answer, potentially clarify Rule 5 regarding symbol input. As for Step 3 in the hash, should that progress further, similar to my Appended Numbers game so 103 consonants and 5 vowels would follow as 103+5 = 108, 1+0+8/10+8, etc.? – Matt Jun 4 '14 at 2:35
• @Matt, clarified - only Latin letters are used from the input. If consonants or vowels are missing, use 0 instead. The sum should progress, until it's <=9. E.g. 103 consonants, 5 vowels: 103+5=108, 1+0+8=9. Then, Shift+9='(' – mai Jun 18 '14 at 10:36

Diplomacy

Note for Sandbox: I have not finished (or really started) the control program for this game, because I wanted to see if there was interest in it before I dedicated too much time to the project. that means that the rule are still up to be tweaked, so please leave a comment if you have a suggestion, and comment or vote if you are interested in seeing this happen.

Diplomacy is a complex strategy game, with a very entertaining combat system. This challenge will be to write a bot to compete in a simplified version of diplomacy combat.

Rules

Rounds

Countries (bots) will begin the game with 10 health, representing their remaining will to fight. The goal is to eliminate all other Nations by attacking them until they have 0 health.

The game will consist of several rounds. On the first round, all bots will receive 2 numbers as command line arguments: The first will be the total number of countries fighting, and the second will be their number in the list. Each following round, bots will receive a command line arguments containing the actions taken by each player last round and a list of all bots and their remaining health separated by commas, like so

1:A2,2:S3,3:A4,4:A3 1:10,2:7,3:7,4:1

Each bot must then output a desired action, which is one two commands

1. Attack a player. This is done by printing the letter A followed by the number of the player you with to attack. For instance, A3
2. Support a player. This will give the player you support a boosted attack.

Resolving combat

After player have sent in their moves, attack scores will be calculated thus:

1. All players start with a strength of 1, and one point is added for every player supporting them. For instance, if the moves are 1:A3,2:S1,3:A2,4:S2 then bot 1 has strength 2, bot 2 has strength 2, bot three has strength 1, and bot 4 has strength 1.
2. After strength has been calculated, bots will deal damage based on their strength. The formula for damage is (Attacker's strength + 1) - (Defender's Strength) In the above situation, player 3 would take 2 damage and player 2 would take 0 damage. Note that, unlike regular diplomacy, attacking a supporter does not cut support.
3. All attack take place simultaneously and independently. This means that if player 1 and 2 both attack player 4, then they each deal 1 damage. If player 3 were to support player 4, then player 4 would take no damage.

Round Ends

After combat has been resolved, countries that have 0 health will no longer be able to attack or support. However, they still will be listed in the input with an health of 0. When a bot is eliminated, all remaining bots will receive a single point.

Ending the game

The game ends when either 100 turns have elapsed or only 2 or less players remain. At this point, the player with the highest remaining health is the winner and receives 1 point. In case of ties, all tied bots will revive 1 point. If all bots die on the same turn, this is not a tied victory, but mutually assured destruction, and all bots will receive 0 points.

Scoring

The control program will run 100 rounds of the game. The winner will be the country with the most points at the end of 100 rounds.

Code

You may write in any language I can reasonably compile. I will make an effort to compile odd languages, but make no promises as to my ability to do so. Please provide your source code, an explanation, and a command line command to run your program.

Notes
• You are allowed to write to a file. In fact, you are encouraged to do so.

• Because this is a game where cooperation is paramount, you are allowed to write bots that work together, with the following restriction:

• Only two bots can be written by a single player to work together at a time.
• Standard Loopholes apply. You are not allowed to change the way the control program runs. If you provide invalid input to the control program, the program will just skip your turn. However, you are allowed to spy on other countries files, and all bot programs will be in the same folder at runtime. This is war, after all!

• I reserve the right to disqualify any country that takes more than about a second to run, or that tries a loophole not mention within. That being said, if it is sufficiently clever I will probably let it go.

I will have source code up soon for a sample country that will be competing, and will post the control program when I finish it.

• "In case of ties, all tied bots will revive 1 point". Is that supposed to say "receive"? "If all bots die on the same turn, ... all bots will receive 0 points." If there are two bots left, each of which has received 1 point from the earlier death of a third bot, and the two bots destroy each other on the same turn, what's the final score for the round? I'm not sure whether it's 0-0-0 or 1-1-0. "You are allowed to write bots that work together": but how can they identify each other? Do they have to use their moves as a covert channel? – Peter Taylor Aug 29 '14 at 14:28
• "Support a player. This will give the player you support a boosted attack." Or defence. Might be clearer to say "boost that player's strength for the turn". Should also state whether or not it's possible to support yourself. – Peter Taylor Aug 29 '14 at 14:29

Check GenericScript source code for compiler errors

Given the source code for a GenericScript program as input, parse the source code to check that it conforms to the syntax rules for the language. The syntax definition for GenericScript is below. If a part of the source code is found to be invalid, the program should output "Invalid syntax", otherwise it should output "Valid syntax".

Win Criteria

This is code golf. Shortest code wins.

Syntax

Source code will be considered to be valid if it matches the rule for "Program" below.

Program             = Sequence
Sequence            = Statement [Sequence]
Statement           = SequenceBlock | Assignment | If | While | Output
SequenceBlock       = "{" Sequence "}"
Assignment          = Identifier "=" (String | Bool);
If                  = "if(" Bool ")" Statement ["else" Statement]
While               = "while(" Bool ")" Statement
Output              = "print(" String ");"
Identifier          = {Any sequence of alphanumeric characters prefixed with "var" }
Bool                = StringEquals | Identifier
StringEquals        = String "==" String
String              = StringConstant | OperatorConcat | Input | Identifier
StringConstant      = "'"StringContent"'"
StringContent       = Character [StringContent]
Character           = {Any character except for "'"}
OperatorConcat      = String "&" String

Whitespace is defined as any sequence of the ascii characters 9, 10, 13 and 32. Whitespace characters are allowed between tokens but are not required.

Rules

1. The answer should be a complete program
2. Standard input/output allowed
3. Standard loopholes apply

Test Input

Valid syntax:

print('Hello ' & varInput);

Invalid syntax:

print('Executing you'r command');

Objective

Your goal is to develop a complete text-based adventure game with the shortest code possible. The player navigates in a dungeon composed of rooms. The game objectives are to find the treasure, slain the dragon and rescue the princess.

Rules

A room description is as follows:

You are in <description>.
You can go <exits>
You see <object>      (optional)
• exits can be "north", "east", "west", "south".
• adjective can be "dark", "murky", "small", "large", "narrow", "gloomy", "huge", "strange", "tiny", "broad", "old".
• object can be "the princess", "the dragon", "a troll", "a goblin", "a sword", "gold", "a key", "a trunk".

Exit list must be comma-separated and end with "and". If there is no object in the room, the last line is omitted.

Example of valid description:

You are in a murky room.
You can go north, east and south.
You see a goblin.

The game accepts the following commands (case is ignored) :

• GO direction : direction can be NORTH, EAST, WEST, SOUTH
• TAKE item : item can be SWORD, GOLD, KEY
• KILL monster : monster can be DRAGON, TROLL, GOBLIN. The DRAGON and the TROLL can be killed only if the user has the SWORD. If he hasn't, he loses the game. The weak GOBLIN can be killed with bare hands. When a monster dies, he disappears from the room. When the GOBLIN dies, he drops a SWORD. When the TROLL dies, he drops a KEY.
• KISS person : person can be PRINCESS, DRAGON, TROLL, GOBLIN. Kissing the princess validates one of the objective of the game, and the princess disappears from the room. Kissing a monster results in player death.
• OPEN object : object can be TRUNK. If the player has the KEY, the TRUNK object disappears and is replaced with GOLD.

OBJECTS
The player can perform an action on an object only if the object is in current room. A room can contain only one object ; a given object can be found in only one room. At the beginning of the game, only the following objects are placed in the map : PRINCESS, DRAGON, TROLL, GOBLIN, TRUNK. Other objects are not yet created.

ACTIONS

• If an action cannot be performed (e.g. GO NORTH where there is no exit to the north, or TAKE DRAGON, or DANCE GANGNAM STYLE), the message "Sorry, I can't do that" must be displayed.
• If an action can be performed, the message "OK" and the current room description should be displayed.
• You can read game commands from console or as a program parameter, as you wish.

MAP
The dungeon should have at least 30 rooms. The dungeon should not contains a series of more than 5 exits in the same direction. The exits between rooms must be consistent, e.g. if you go north from room #1 to room #2, there must a south exit in room #2 leading back to room #1. Every room name should be unique. There must be at least one room of each kind (hall, cavern, corridor...)

• A hall has at least 3 exits.
• A corridor can have only 2 exits.
• The cell has only one exit.
• There is only one dragon's lair and only one cell, containing respectively the dragon and the princess.

GAME END
The game ends when the player has been killed, or when he has taken the gold, slain the dragon and kissed the princess.

• If the player dies, the message "You have been killed by X !" is displayed, with X being the name of the monster.
• If the player wins, the message "Well done adventurer ! you've conquered the dungeon." is displayed.

Player should not be able to win the game in less than 40 turns.

Example

You are in a murky room.
You can go north, east and south.
You see a goblin.
> KILL GOBLIN
Ok.
You are in a murky room.
You can go north, east and south.
You see a sword.
> TAKE SWORD
Ok.
You are in a murky room.
You can go north, east and south.
> GO NORTH
Ok.
You are in a narrow corridor.
You can go south and east.

Scoring

The shortest code wins.

• @Martin Thanks for your comments! I've updated the question. – Arnaud Aug 21 '14 at 7:59
• Provided the player ignores the troll and goblin (i.e. doesn't try to kiss or kill them), they don't do anything? – Peter Taylor Aug 21 '14 at 8:30
• @Peter you're right. Maybe the player should kill (with bare hands) the goblin in order to get the sword, and then kill the troll (with the sword) to get the key. – Arnaud Aug 21 '14 at 8:50
• "The map must be spatially coherent" still doesn't disallow always going left without ending up in the same room twice, unless you specify that the rooms are all meant to be square (which is what I think you had in mind). Also, I still think that "at least" 30 rooms is unnecessary. Who would implement 8 additional rooms if they don't have to. It will definitely be shorter if I omit the two longest adjectives and just use all available combinations of the remaining ones (giving 30 unique rooms). So you can omit two adjectives and the "at least" right away, I'd say. – Martin Ender Aug 21 '14 at 9:19
• I think it's fine to keep "at least" there for flavour, same with additional adjectives. Also, someone might figure out a way to make the code shorter with a longer adjective (for that reason, having a few more adjectives might be nice) – FireFly Aug 21 '14 at 9:38
• @Martin I've added a criteria "Player should not be able to win in less than 30 turns", to force the golfer to implement more rooms. – Arnaud Aug 21 '14 at 9:39
• @SuperChafouin That doesn't force it though. I just need to place the goblin at the end, troll at the beginning, trunk at the end, so that you need to traverse the map 3 times. – Martin Ender Aug 21 '14 at 9:51
• @Martin It's also here to prevent the dungeon to be too straightforward to solve, e.g. if all the objects are in 5 adjacent rooms near the player start location. – Arnaud Aug 21 '14 at 10:51
• +1 for golfing in Inform 7. – Lopsy Sep 20 '14 at 2:56
• Hello! This looks like a good but abandoned meta post, would you be willing to offer it for adoption? (If you want to, you can still post to main.) Due to community guidelines, if you don't respond to this comment in 7 days I have permission to adopt this. – programmer5000 Jun 9 '17 at 16:58
• @programmer5000 Yes no problem :-) – Arnaud Jun 10 '17 at 1:07

Simulate a Quantum Circuit

Work-in-progress until I can make sure I know what I am doing and can finish the spec. or maybe

Quantum computers are the way of the future! Why wait, when you can simulate one now?

Your mission is to determine the output of a quantum circuit given its input and a diagram of logic gates.

Details

You will simulate a single quantum register and apply a series of quantum logic gates to it. A quantum register is a group of qubits. The state of a register is described by a vector of 2^N complex numbers, where N is the number of qubits in the register.

a|000>
b|001>
c|010>
d|011>
e|100>
f|101>
g|110>
h|111>

Above is a representation of a 3-qubit register. Each letter (a b c etc.) represents a complex number. There is an addition restriction that:

|a|^2 + |b|^2 + |c|^2 + |d|^2 + |e|^2 + |f|^2 + |g|^2 + |h|^2 = 1

Quantum gates

Gates are represented by a 2^N x 2^N square unitary matrix, where N is the number of input qubits. All quantum gates have the same number of outputs and inputs, since they neither create nor destroy qubits, they modify them.

A common quantum gate is called the Hadamard gate and acts on a single qubit. The matrix [H] looks like this:

1/Sqrt(2)  1/Sqrt(2)
1/Sqrt(2)  -1/Sqrt(2)

If we let [R] represent the following 1-qubit register:

0.6|0>
O.8|1>

Then the application of the gate is represented by [H][R] and gives the following result:

7*Sqrt(2)/10|0>
-Sqrt(2)/10|1>

It is still true that the sum of the squares of the absolute values is equal to 1.

(TODO: explain how to apply gates to larger registers)

Measurement

Measurement collapses the state of the quantum register.

(Todo: Explain how measurement works)

BS

The goal of this challenge is to implement an AI for the game of BS, also known as Bull Shit, Cheat, Bluff, and numerous other names.

The game is outlined in this wikipedia article.

The Rules of the Game

For the purposes of this challenge, the game will work like this:

1. A standard 52-card deck is dealt out to the players
2. The current rank is set to Ace
3. The play order is randomized
4. The player holding the Ace of Hearts goes first
5. On each player's turn:
1. The current player plays some number of cards
2. The current player states how many of what rank they played
3. Other players may declare 'BS'.
4. If any player declares 'BS':
1. All players are notified of which players declared 'BS'.
2. The played cards are revealed to all players.
3. If the played cards are inconsistent with the current player's statement:
• The current player adds the played cards and all cards in the pile to their hand
4. If the played cards are consistant with the current player's statement:
• The last player to declare 'BS' that round adds the played cards and pile to their hand.
5. If no player declares 'BS':
1. The played cards are added to the pile, without revealing them.
2. If the played cards were inconsistant with the current player's statement, the current player may declare 'Peanut Butter'.
6. If the current player has no cards in their hand, the current player wins.
7. The current rank is incremented. (If the current rank is King, it becomes Ace.)

The Messaging Protocol

Play will be conducted via messages passed to the standard input and received from the standard output of each program. Each message will be terminated with a single newline character.

Cards

Card ranks are represented as one of A, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, T, J, Q, or K. Card suits will be represented as one of S, C, H, or D. Cards are represented as the rank, followed immediately by a suit. For instance, the Ten of Clubs would be represented by TC, and the Three of Hearts would be represented by 3H.

A hand of cards will be represented as a space-delimited sequence of cards. For instance, a hand containing the Queen of Spades and the Six of Diamonds could be represented as QS 6D or 6D QS.

Player Identification

A player will be represented by their nickname, followed by a number from 0 to 32768, in parenthesis, formatted as an integer. This number is guaranteed to be unique within a particular game. A player's nickname must have at least one character, can have up to 32 characters, and may only include letters, numbers, and underscores. For instance, a player with nickname ExampleAI and ID number 16480 would be identified in the game as ExampleAI(16480).

When the game begins, each program will recieve a message containing their unique ID:

Unique ID: uniqueID

Each player will reply with their desired nickname:

Nickname: name

Names may contain only alphanumeric characters and underscores.

After all players have responded with their nickname, the standard play sequence begins.

Standard Play Sequence

When a player's turn begins, each player will receive a be given a list of the players and their card counts, in order of play:

Players: player[count], player[count], ... player[count]

Each player will be informed of the contents of their hands:

Hand: initial_hand

The current the player will then receive this message:

The current player will reply with a space-separated list of of cards:

Play: list_of_cards

Once they have submitted their play, all players will receive the number of cards, formatted as an integer, along with the current rank:

Player player plays: nunber_of_cards x current_rank

Each other player may then declare BS on that play by sending any message up to 32 characters, containing the capital letters B and S, and otherwise only contains lowercase letters and spaces. So any of Bull Shit, Bananna Split or Bacon Sandwich would be acceptable.

During this period, the current player may declare Peanut Butter by sending any message up to 32 characters, as long as it contains the capital letters P and B, and otherwise only contains lowercase letters and spaces. So any of Peanut Butter, Pancake Batter or Polish Bacon would be acceptable.

In order to allow the game to move faster, if a player does not wish to declare either of these things, they must instead send:

Pass

After all players have responded, all players will receive a list of players who called BS, in the order they called it:

Called BS: player, player ... player

If no player called BS, this message will still be sent --- it just won't have any players listed. If any player did call BS, then all players will recieve:

If they were bluffing, all players recieve:

Player player was bluffing.

If they were not bluffing, all players recieve:

Player player was not bluffing.

The last player who called BS recieves this message:

The list of cards received will contain, in reverse chronological order, the contents of each play since the last call. (Separate plays will not be delimited in the list.)

If no player declared BS, and the current player was bluffing and declared Peanut Butter, then all players recieve the message:

Player player was bluffing.

If the current player has no cards left in their hand, all players receive this message, and the game terminates:

Player player won!

Otherwise, the next player's turn begins.

Example Game

The following might be considered a typical (abbreviated) message transcript:

Unique ID: 16481
> Nickname: Alice
Players: Alice(16481)[18], Bob(16479)[17], Charlie(16480)[17]
Hand: 2D 7S AS TC 5S JS JC 3C 8H 9D 5D AH 7C 6C 4D KC KH KS
> Play: AS 2D AH
Player Alice(16481) plays: 3 x A
> PB
Called BS:
Player Alice(16481) was bluffing.
Players: Bob(16479)[17], Charlie(16480)[17], Alice(16481)[15]
Hand: 7S TC 5S JS JC 3C 8H 9D 5D 7C 6C 4D KC KH KS
Player Bob(16479) plays: 2 x 2
> BS
Called BS: Alice(16481)
Player Bob(16479) had played: 2H 2C
Player Bob(16479) was not bluffing.
Player Alice(16481) takes the pile.
You misjudged: 2H 2C AS 2D AH
Players: Charlie(16480)[17], Alice(16481)[20], Bob(16479)[15]
Hand: 7S TC 5S JS JC 3C 8H 9D 5D 7C 6C 4D KC KH KS 2H 2C AS 2D AH
.
.
.
Players: Alice(16481)[3], Bob(16479)[41], Charlie(16480)[8]
Hand: KC KH KS
> Play: KC KH KS
Called BS: Charlie(16480), Bob(16479)
Player Alice(16481) was not bluffing.
Player Alice(16481) won!

Your implementation may be written in any language, provided that you, upon request, provide a link to a suitable free-as-in-freedom compiler or interpreter that I can download and run at no cost. You also need to provide a UNIX command that can start your program.

Sandbox Questions

I want to gauge the community's interest in my problem before finalizing the spec and writing the control program.

I also need to get some idea of what sort of time-limiting scheme would be reasonable. In order to be able to to a lot of runs, I will need to be able to ensure that each AI doesn't take too much time to make its decisions, or prevent a stuck AI from holding up a game. I also need to be able to ensure that there is no motivation to deliberately stall a game. For example, if an AI determines that it is very unlikely to win, it might stall in order to prevent the game from finishing.

I would also like feedback on the messaging protocol:

• Are there any additional messages that you think should be passed?
• Would it be more convenient/clear if one or more of them were formatted differently?
• Would it be better to use a different format for the plays message?
• Would it be better to use different words to help distinguish the plays and played messages?
• It looks like quite a tough challenge, but should be enjoyable! – Alexander Craggs Sep 4 '14 at 16:54
• @PopeyGilbert By the way, there was one thing I accidentally left out that I need feedback on. Specifically, time limits - to deal with intentional stalling, getting stuck, or taking too long to decide. – AJMansfield Sep 4 '14 at 17:05
• A question and a feedback. Does our program run as "stop and run" or must receive feedback continuously? And for feedback. I honestly think that the whole username things is kinda confusing. Maybe if you just use only unique id? (Like just simple 0,1,2,3 instead of username) – Realdeo Sep 5 '14 at 8:33
• Oh! More things! I also realize that suit doesn't really matter, right? (We only use suit for deciding who goes first), so fmpov, you can ditch the communication protocol for the suit. (No need for S,C,D,H) We can just use simple random from the computer. Question: What will happened if everybody make infinity loop of pass. For time limit, I prefer 1 second. If no response, make it auto pass. (KOTH chess time limit is 2 seconds. That's why 1 second is good enough) – Realdeo Sep 5 '14 at 8:38
• @Realdeo Card suit is also used to distinguish between separate instances of a card. If Alice plays 3x2 (2S 2D 2C), is not revealed, and Bob gets the pile later, and then Bob plays 3x2 (2S 2C 2H), and this is revealed, it is important for Alice that she knows all four Twoes have passed through Bob's hand. There are other ways that can be used as well. – AJMansfield Sep 5 '14 at 13:29
• @Realdeo I am not sure what you mean by "Does our program run as "stop and run" or must receive feedback continuously?". If you mean, "Does an AI program halt in the periods where no response is expected from it?" the answer is no. – AJMansfield Sep 5 '14 at 13:32
• @Realdeo If everybody makes an infinity loop of pass, then eventually someone will run out of cards, since you are required to play at least one card each turn. – AJMansfield Sep 5 '14 at 13:33
• @Realdeo Which is why making a automatic pass after a timeout not work when waiting for a player to decide their play. Perhaps a simple rule like 'if you take more than 1 second to decide what to play, four cards are selected at random from your hand'. – AJMansfield Sep 5 '14 at 13:36
• And if a player has less then 4 cards? I think in some AI website, like aigames.com, they're like forced to give up that hand? You really want to test your entry before put them in the arena(like vsing a bot dummy?) Either way, this is a good challenge =) – Realdeo Sep 5 '14 at 13:40
• @Realdeo Also note that you can actually play more than four cards in one play. A case where you might wish to do this is when: the next player is very close to winning and some other player is close to winning and you believe(all opponents believe(your next opponent will bluff) and the next opponent will not bluff and the next opponent believes(the other opponent close to winning will call BS against them)). A little convoluted, but could happen. – AJMansfield Sep 5 '14 at 13:42
• @Realdeo Just to explain what I mean, is that there are two people close to winning, each of which would like to dump a large stack of cards on top of the other. Because of this, they both let your obvious bluff slide because they believe that will let them dump a large stack on the other. – AJMansfield Sep 5 '14 at 13:47
• Don't worry I understand. This is a really famous high school game in my country. It just... a little bit too complex for CR. When I saw chess KOTH, I was kinda pessimist. This one? This may deserve it's own AI website. #seriously. I'm just trying to simplify this game =) – Realdeo Sep 5 '14 at 13:50
• – AJMansfield Sep 5 '14 at 13:50
• RE the messaging service, I think the other players should be able to see how many cards the other players have. Also, card counting should be prohibited because that would make the game too easy. – Beta Decay Sep 10 '14 at 17:31
• @BetaDecay First off, according to the protocol, every player is informed of every other player's hand size at the beginning of every round. – AJMansfield Sep 10 '14 at 18:27

I am planning on hosting a King of the Hill challenge in which bots will have to coordinate each other in order to be successful. The idea is to play a Diplomacy-like game between bots. The engine (still in development) will start the bots and communicate with them via stdin/stdout. There will be three phases:

0. Initialization

Well, this is not a recurring phase, it is just the engine telling each bot his id, the total number of bots participating and a seed, which can be used for generation of pseudo-random numbers (bots need to be deterministic).

1. Talking Phase (10s)

In the Talking phase, bots can send messages to each other (via engine) in order to coordinate their actions. To this end, a common language is necessary. This language should be able to express any ideas, plans and opinions a bot could have. However, not every bot is forced to be able to understand everything. Simpler bots might just ignore messages they do not understand.

Since I would like each player to be able to submit more than one bot, it is forbidden to implement a "secret handshake" by which bots recognize each other and from then on work together unconditionally.

2. Planning Phase (2s)

In this phase, bots submit what they want to do this turn. Each bot has a certain amount of supply (initially five), and can command one action per supply point. There are three possible actions:

1. Attack another bot
2. Support another bot's attack against a third bot
3. Defend another bot

There are some restrictions:

• Per opponent, you can either attack or defend them, and only once
• You cannot support an attack against a bot you also defend
• You cannot attack, defend, support yourself or a dead bot, and neither can you support attacks against yourself

3. Resolution Phase (as short as possible)

After all orders have been submitted, the engine will resolve them simultaneously in the following way:

The defending strength of each bot is the number of bots defending that bot. The attacking strength of each attack is the number of support orders for that attack. Each attack with an attacking strength greater than the defending strength of the attacked bot results in the supply counter of the attacked bot being reduced by one, and the supply counter of the attacker being increased by one.

Support orders which support a non-existent attack do nothing.

Then, all bots with supply of zero or less will be shut down by the engine: they died.

Afterwards, all remaining bots are informed about the decisions of other bots, and a new turn begins with its Talking Phase.

Further Rules

A game will consist of ten plus random number turns, so that "last turn betrayals" are not possible. The supply count of each bot will count towards their total score. I plan an ensemble of about 100 games. The bot with the highest total score wins. Tie-breaker will be the popularity (number of votes).

I am interested in your opinion: do you think that this challenge is too complex? I imagine that the code of a decent bot would be too long to fit in a post. So people would have to use github or pastebin or similar to submit their entries. The main problem imo is the interpretation of the (yet to be determined) common language.

• I like it a lot. One possible variation would be to make the "secret handshakes" a feature. To do this, you could allow multiple instances of the same bot. Then part of the challenge is to recognise your own kin and mutually support them; and a viable strategy is to try and work out other players' secret handshakes and imitate them. If you're ok with emphasising this aspect of it, then you can make the shared language pretty unrestricted, e.g. bots can just send arbitrary strings to each other. (I realise this is not what you have in mind, I just thought I'd mention the idea.) – Nathaniel Oct 31 '14 at 15:13
• @Nathaniel, what you propose is a battle of obfuscation/cryptography. What I would like to see is a battle of diplomacy. – M.Herzkamp Nov 2 '14 at 14:27
• Fair enough - I just thought I'd say it in case it sparked any interesting thoughts for you, but I knew it was probably too different from what you want to see. If I have any other ideas about your challenge I'll let you know. Designing the language really seems to be the hard part. – Nathaniel Nov 3 '14 at 0:06
• A diplomatic KOTH is something I've been wanting to see for a while. Working out the specifics of the "diplomatic language" is going to be the most difficult part. My proposal is that each message can either 1) state an intention to another bot, or 2) request an action from another bot. Each message would be formatted in a way similar to how a final command would be. – PhiNotPi Nov 9 '14 at 14:45
• @PhiNotPhi: Thanks for the Feedback! I also imagined something similar with the ability to link atomic statements in a boolean fashion. – M.Herzkamp Nov 11 '14 at 9:23

Happy Holidays!

Introduction

With the holidays upon us, I decided to make an appropriately themed challenge. You are provided with a list of holidays and their respective date ranges, and given a date, you have to output a holiday greeting or the time remaining until the next holiday as appropriate.

Challenge

The list of holidays is below. You have to include it in your program (so no using a library or other external resource for this). Feel free to use any convenient format.

Start  | End    | Name
------ | ------ | -------------------
Dec 6  | Dec 7  | Saint Nicholas' Day
Dec 13 | Dec 14 | Saint Lucy's Day
Dec 24 | Dec 27 | Christmas
Jan 1  | Jan 2  | New Year
Jan 6  | Jan 7  | Epiphany
Feb 14 | Feb 15 | Valentine's Day

You are given a date as input (STDIN, function argument, or anything convenient) in YYYY-mm-dd HH:MM:SS format (e.g.: 2014-12-30 11:15:00).

You may assume that the time zone is either UTC or the system's time zone. The holiday lasts from 00:00:00 on the start date (inclusive) to 00:00:00 on the end date (exclusive).

If the date falls within the range of the holiday, you must output Happy <holiday>!, except if it's Christmas, in which case you must output Merry Christmas!.

If it doesn't, but another holiday is coming at most a week in the future, you must output:

<time> left until <holiday>.

where <time> is in the following format:

<days>d <hours>h <minutes>m <seconds>s

You can't use a library for converting the time to that format.

If there are no whole days, hours, minutes or seconds remaining, omit the number entirely. For example, 1d 0h 3m 4s should be printed as 1d 3m 4s.

If there are no upcoming holidays, you must output (no pun intended):

There are no upcoming holidays.

A trailing newline is optional, but be consistent in your program—don't add a trailing newline in one case and omit it in another.

Standard loopholes are obviously forbidden.

Test cases

Date                | Output
------------------- | ----------------------------------
2014-12-05 23:59:59 | 1s left until Saint Nicholas' Day.
2014-12-06 00:00:00 | Happy Saint Nicholas' Day!
2014-12-06 12:00:00 | Happy Saint Nicholas' Day!
2014-12-06 23:59:59 | Happy Saint Nicholas' Day!
2014-12-07 00:00:00 | 6d left until Saint Lucy's Day.
2014-12-14 00:00:00 | There are no upcoming holidays.
2014-12-24 00:00:00 | Merry Christmas!

Note that your program must work for any year, not just 2014.

Winner

This is code golf, so the submission with the fewest number of bytes wins. An answer will be accepted after a week, but I'll be happy to change the accepted answer if a new valid submission beats the previous high score.

• How do you expect people to test the test cases? It would probably be better to take input than to use the current time, because then it actually makes sense to talk about test cases. You should check date for duplicates, and if there are none you should add that tag. – Peter Taylor Dec 29 '14 at 14:51
• @PeterTaylor You're right, I'll do that. – nyuszika7h Dec 29 '14 at 15:37
• @PeterTaylor I couldn't find any exact duplicates, only two holiday-themed questions, both of which ask for much less than my challenge. – nyuszika7h Dec 30 '14 at 11:28

Find the Minimum Width of a Set of Points

Given a set of points in 2D space, you're to find the direction along which those points occupy the shortest width.

More formally, consider a set of n points P = {p1, ..., pn}, where pi = (xi,yi), and a unit vector d = (xd, yd). Now K is the set of lengths obtained from orthogonal projection of P onto d. In particular, ki = xixd + yiyd. The width L of P along d is defined as max ki - min ki. Your task is to find the d along which L is minimal.

To keep things interesting, your algorithm's time complexity must not exceed O(n log n).

You may write a program or function, taking input via STDIN, command-line argument or function argument. The result may be printed to STDOUT or returned.

You can expect the input P to be in any convenient list or string format, but the input must not be pre-processed (e.g. sorted by coordinates). You may assume that the input contains at least 2 points and that no two points coincide.

The output must be correct to 10 significant (decimal) digits. Of course, d is only unique up to the relative sign of the coordinates, so there are two correct answers for each input. You may return either of those.

You must not use built-in functions related to this problem, like finding the minimum width of a polygon, or computing the convex hull of a set of points. You may use built-in vector/matrix types and operations.

Sandbox Notes

• I'll write my own solution at some point next week, and use it to provide a number of test cases.
• I'm also planning to add a handful of diagrams to clarify the definitions.
• The challenge was inspired by this proposal from Calvin's Hobbies, I think they are sufficiently different, as this problem here is only one approach to tackling his challenge (and even then it's only a subproblem). But if people think, they are too similar, and posting this one would make his a duplicate in the future, I'll retract this challenge (as I'd really like to see his posted some time).
• I hope you're still planning on posting this. Just a few notes: (a) The minimal direction is not generally unique (e.g., if we have a regular polygon, or just a single point). You'd might want to make the actual (scalar) width the output instead. (b) I assume the input is never empty? (c) Can it contain duplicates? – Ell Jan 3 '15 at 16:01
• @Ell yes I still want to post this. Just didn't get around to writing the reference yet. a) good point. I'll think about asking for the width vs asking for any minimal direction. b) yes, will clarify. c) I'll think about that. Probably not. – Martin Ender Jan 3 '15 at 16:07

The Genetic Game of Life

In this game, you play as cells (as in cellular automata). Your goal is to reproduce and kill off other cells on the board.

At the beginning of the game, two distinct configurations will be randomly chosen, one for reproduction, one for killing. The configurations will consist of 3 squares in a 5 by 5 area, not including the center square. For example,

OOXOX
OOOOO
OO OO
OOOXO
OOOOO

is an example configuration, where X represents a cell, and O can either be empty or filled. The configurations do not work if rotated.

The cells will be placed randomly, but equidistant from each other in a toroidal board. Cells will be placed in a random turn order.

Each turn, each cell will move a square one at a time. If a cell's movement creates the reproduction configuration with cells of the same type, and the center square is empty, then a new cell will spawn. If a cell's movement creates the killing configuration with cells of any type, and the center square is filled, then the cell in the center square will die.

When a new cell spawns, its DNA will be conglomeration of the DNA of the bots in the configuration. It will take its first turn after all other cells have taken 1 turn.

A cell that has not been part of a killing configuration after 200 turns will die.

The cell type with the most cells after 100K turns wins.

IO

Each turn, you will be passed a string of 1s and 0s representing your DNA, and a list of 49 integers representing a 7x7 grid of the vision around the cell. Specimens of the same type will have the same integer, and 0 will represent an empty square.

You must return a single character (N, E, S, W or X) representing the direction that the cell will travel. Attempting to move into another cell will result in your cell not moving.

• What size genome are you thinking? – trichoplax Jan 21 '15 at 15:18
• When designing a bot, I think it would make a big difference if the total number of players was known. You could say "a game consists of 50 players competing on a board" and make up the numbers with a simple example bot if there are less than 50 answers. Obviously 50 is just an example - it could be 10 or 2 or 20 or whatever works best. – trichoplax Jan 21 '15 at 18:54
• I say this because it means a bot writer will then know the maximum size of the 49 integers they need to process. – trichoplax Jan 21 '15 at 18:56
• Could you specify whether a killing configuration can be made up using cells of different teams? – trichoplax Feb 5 '15 at 0:38
• 1. The latest version of this question talks a lot about types, but doesn't define them. What is the type of a cell? Its genome? Its team? 2. What is meant by the "conglomeration" of the genomes of the bots in the spawning configuration? Is it the concatenation? Some kind of bit-by-bit random selection between the three parents' genomes? 3. What's the initial setup? How many cells do I get, and do they all have the same genome? – Peter Taylor Feb 5 '15 at 10:32

Convert a Finite State Machine to a Regular Expression

Anyone can make a finite state machine for matching a regular expression. But what about a regular expression that emulates a finite state machine? This inverse operation is much more confusing.

Input

• A positive integer N, denoting the number of states in the machine. They are labeled 0 to N - 1.
• A list of accepting states of the machine. A string is considered to be accepted by the machine if it ends in one of these when there are no characters left.
• A list of triples (integer a, character b, integer c) representing the transition rules: when the machine is at state a and the current character in the string is b, then it may advance one character and move to state c.

You may specify the ordering and formatting of input.

Output

A regular expression that matches a string iff it is accepted by the finite state machine.

• An input for the state machine may contain only printable ASCII characters which are not in the set ^$()[]|+?*\.. • The machine begins in state 0. • You should not use any regex features other than |, (), ?, *, + • You may not use libraries designed for this task (which apparently exist). • The regex should match full strings (assume it is surrounded by ^ and$).

• An answer is either a program which prints the regex to stdout, or a function which returns the regex.

This is code golf: write your code in as few bytes as possible.

Sandbox Question

Should the FSM be deterministic or non?

• Why not allow character classes? Alteration seems like an overkill alternative, and answers might like to detect parallel edges. – John Dvorak Feb 5 '15 at 14:38
• "a function which returns the regex." - do we need to actually construct the regex object or are we allowed to return a string representation thereof? – John Dvorak Feb 5 '15 at 14:40
• General FSMs tend to produce really big regexes. Not sure if allowing non-determinism inflates that even further, but I believe it actually does not. – John Dvorak Feb 5 '15 at 14:46
• Are you sure you want to allow { and } in the input? Because we'd have to escape these... – John Dvorak Feb 5 '15 at 14:47
• @JanDvorak Thanks. I'll allow character classes although I doubt they would be used in golf. I'm aware they will be big (like this question). – feersum Feb 5 '15 at 14:52
• (a) Can we assume anything at all about the SM? Are all terminal states accepting? Are all states reachable? Can there be no reachable accepting states, and what would be the output in this case? (b) Are the blacklisted input chars also invalid as input for the regex? That is, can we use \* in our regex with the intention that it's never matched? (c) How liberal can we be with the input format? Can we take the transition table as, for example, {src_state: [(char1, dest_state1), (char2, dest_state2)], ... }, or must it be a list of triplets? – Ell Feb 8 '15 at 13:33
• @Ell For (a) and (b), the metacharacters are not allowed in the input strings, so one way to match nothing would be using one of them literally. About (c), it must be a list of triples. – feersum Feb 13 '15 at 3:39

ASCII Robot Wars

This idea is based off of the game "Besiege" (which I've never played) and a previous sandboxed idea of mine called "Epic Customizable Tank Battle."

The main idea is that your program is the AI that controls a robot equipped with various weapons. In this challenge, however, you will also have the opportunity to design your robot

List of Parts

(completely arbitrary and subject to total replacement)

• Wooden planks + and armored metal plates # make up the body of the robot.
• Wheels @ allow your robot to move. TODO - turning
• Most weapons are formed with two parts, a body and a pointer v^<> to denote the direction of aim.
• Cannons have a body of %, ballistas have a body of (something), spikes and battering rams are (something).
• Maybe helicopter blades can be X.
#+++#
@###@

Controlling the Bot

I think this would make a really cool Stack-Snippet KOTH, since it is "visually interesting" to watch robots blow each other into pieces. Writing the controller will be hard because this is a major deviation from previous pixel-based KOTHs.

Sorting Source Code code-golfquine

Your task in this challenge is to write a program that takes no input and outputs This program consists of followed by your program's source code characters, but in alphabetical order.

Details

• You may only use printable ASCII characters and line breaks in your program.
• When outputting all source code characters, ignore line breaks and sort all characters by their ASCII number from lowest to highest.
• This is , so the shortest valid submission (in bytes) wins.

Here is a correctly ordered list of all printable ASCII characters (mind the space at the very beginning):

!"#\$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~

Example

If the source code for your program is

print 'This program consists of ';
print this.sort();

then output must be

• You should probably add the quine tag to this. And you should also specify whether reading the source code is allowed. That said, I'm not sure how much it adds over existing (generalised) quine challenges. Ultimately, solutions will just be language's standard quine, followed by sorting the string and prepending This program consists of. – Martin Ender May 18 '15 at 17:33
• Are submissions in which the original source code is already sorted, allowed? – ProgramFOX May 18 '15 at 17:34
• @ProgramFOX: I don't see why they shouldn't be allowed. Is there any particular reason? – vauge May 18 '15 at 18:42
• @MartinBüttner: Good point. I've added the quine tag, but probably there's no point in posting this challenge if there are already enough similar questions! – vauge May 18 '15 at 18:45
• @vauge No, I missed that you had to print a sentence before the sorted characters. Initially I thought of a one-char solution like 1 which works in some languages (and which would pretty much miss the purpose of the challenge), but of course that doesn't print the sentence. – ProgramFOX May 18 '15 at 19:06
• In addition to not reading the source code, you might want to link to these working definitions of what counts as a proper quine. With the requirement of printing the additional string it's not very likely that there are a lot of loopholes left, but better safe than sorry. – Martin Ender May 19 '15 at 7:04
• The problem with quines is that there's a reusable technique to print any function of the source code, so twists like this don't actually change much. – xnor May 19 '15 at 7:20

Strange question about transit schematics (title tbd)

In this challenge, your goal is to produce a schematic diagram of a transit network, given a list of lines and a list of stations as input. This is a popularity-contest -- the program's goal is to maximize the readability of the diagram by carefully choosing where to draw the stations and lines.

Each line in the transit network is formatted as a list of strings. For instance:

"Peel Line", "Douglas", "Port Erin", "Braddan Halt", "Union Mill", "Crosby"

The first string on the list is the name of the line. The remaining strings are the stations that that particular line stops at. In this example the Peel Line stops at Douglas, Port Erin, Braddan Halt, Union Mill, and terminates at Crosby. The lines are bidirectional so the Peel Line would also go back the other way.

Of course, most transit networks will have more than one line. Each line of the transit network will have its own line in the input. For instance:

"Peel Line", "Douglas", "Port Erin", "Braddan Halt", "Union Mill", "Crosby"
"Foxdale Line", "Ramsey", "St. John's", "Union Mill", "Bishop", "Foxdale"

Notice how both lines stop at Union Mill. This means that Union Mill is an interchange station for those two lines. A station is an interchange station if more than one line stops at it. Here is an attempt at what the network might look like:

This map does some things well but fails at other things. The lines are coloured different colours which helps differentiate the lines. In addition, the interchange station is emphasised with the white dot to show it is an interchange station. However, it fails at other things, the most prominent being that the text "Union Mill" is overlapping the line, and there is a lack of a key showing which line is which. When we fix these elements the map looks like this:

Much better! (Another way I could have resolved the Union Mill overlapping issue was to change the paths of the lines.) In addition, we can also have lines being a loop. This is indicated by the first and last train stations being the same. For instance:

"Island Line", "Port Erin", "Kitterland", "Kalfr", "Ardglass", "Kearney", "Port Erin"

The Island Line in this case is a loop that goes from Port Erin to Kitterland to Kalfr, then to Ardglass and Kearney, before finally returning to Port Erin, completing the loop.

With more complicated train networks, it becomes more difficult to arrange the stations and lines in a readable manner. Here are some inputs of varying complexity and density to try your program on. Some of them are based of actual networks, while others are made up for this challenge.

Challenge Input 1: Oslo, Norway:

"1", "Frognerseteren", "Voksenkollen", "Lillevann", "Skogen", "Voksenlia", "Holmenkollen", "Besserud", "Midtstuen", "Skådalen", "Vettakollen", "Gulleråsen", "Gråkammen", "Slemdal", "Ris", "Gaustad", "Vinderen", "Steinerud", "Frøen", "Majorstuen", "Nationaltheatret", "Stortinget", "Jernbanetorget (Oslo S)", "Grønland", "Tøyen", "Ensjø", "Helsfyr", "Brynseng", "Hellerud", "Tveita", "Haugerud", "Trosterud", "Lindeberg", "Furuset", "Ellingsrudåsen"
"2", "Østerås", "Lijordet", "Eiksmarka", "Ekravein", "Røa", "Hovseter", "Holmen", "Makrellbekken", "Smestad", "Borgen", "Majorstuen", "Nationaltheatret", "Stortinget", "Jernbanetorget (Oslo S)", "Grønland", "Tøyen", "Ensjø", "Helsfyr", "Brynseng", "Hellerud", "Tveita", "Haugerud", "Trosterud", "Lindeberg", "Furuset", "Ellingsrudåsen"
"3", "Mortensrud", "Skullerud", "Bogerud", "Bøler", "Ulsrud", "Oppsal", "Skøyenåsen", "Godlia", "Hellerud", "Brynseng", "Helsfyr", "Ensjø", "Tøyen", "Grønland", "Jernbanetorget (Oslo S)", "Stortinget", "Nationaltheatret", "Majorstuen", "Blindern", "Forskningsparken", "Ullevål stadion", "Berg", "Tåsen", "Østhorn", "Holstein", "Kringsjå", "Sognsvann"
"4", "Storo", "Nydalen", "Ullevål stadion", "Forskningsparken", "Blindern", "Majorstuen", "Nationaltheatret", "Stortinget", "Jernbanetorget (Oslo S)", "Grønland", "Tøyen", "Ensjø", "Helsfyr", "Brynseng", "Høyenhall", "Manglerud", "Ryen", "Brattlikollen", "Karlsrud", "Lambertseter", "Munkelia", "Bergkrystallen"
"5", "Storo", "Nydalen", "Ullevål stadion", "Forskningsparken", "Blindern", "Majorstuen", "Nationaltheatret", "Stortinget", "Jernbanetorget (Oslo S)", "Grønland", "Tøyen", "Carl Berners plass", "Hasle", "Økern", "Risløkka", "Vollebekk", "Linderud", "Veitvet", "Rødtvet", "Kalbakken", "Ammerud", "Grorud", "Romsås", "Rommen", "Stovner", "Vestli"
"6", "Bekkestua", "Ringstabekk", "Jar", "Bjørnsletta", "Åsjordet", "Ullernåsen", "Montebello", "Smestad", "Borgen", "Majorstuen", "Nationaltheatret", "Stortinget", "Jernbanetorget (Oslo S)", "Grønland", "Tøyen", "Carl Berners plass", "Sinsen", "Storo"

Here's what the official map looks like for some inspiration (click to enlarge):

TODO: more challenge inputs coming!

Sandbox Notes

• I've had this one sitting around for a while. I've wanted to try and make a that wasn't just about making the prettiest image. So instead it's about making the most functional image, which I'm not sure is any better than the art challenges...
• Another thing I've been considering is changing it to a . I'd have minimum requirements for the final output (a key, coloured lines, distinguished interchange stations, etc.) and the shortest code that implemented all the requirements would win. I'd like your thoughts on whether this challenge would work better as code golf or popularity contest.
• I like this concept, but I somewhat like it better as a popcon. As a golf, you will get the bare minimum requirements for sure, and it might not be very functional/readable at all. As a popcon, you'll probably get at least a couple platform-ready posters. I don't normally recommend popcon for things that could be golfed, but this feels like one them. – Geobits May 19 '15 at 16:37
• For test cases, I think Tokyo would make for something nice and complicated. – Geobits May 19 '15 at 16:41
• @Geobits That is a fantastically complicated network, but it's got all sorts of things that the input format can't handle -- if I'm reading it right, when the Yokosuka Line reaches Chiba and Soga it splits off into different paths with different terminus stations. – absinthe May 19 '15 at 22:18
• Good point, I'm guessing many large cities have split lines like that. I suppose if you want a simple input format it'll have to be some boring old map ;) – Geobits May 20 '15 at 14:01
• There doesn't seem to be an obvious reason for not using an input format which allows lines to fork and loops to encompass only part of a line. Why not take input in a subset of the .dot format? – Peter Taylor May 21 '15 at 19:23

How to Gossip Appropriately

We all know how important it is to get social arrangements right:

You have a group of friends who love to gossip. However, gossip is notorious for changing as it gets spread from friend to friend, and if somebody hears two versions of the same gossip, it just ruins it for them.

Hence, you and all of your friends have agreed to gossip in an orderly manner, and it is your job to define who will gossip with who and for how long. Ideal gossiping must follow the following rules:

1. Each friend must gossip for a specific amount of time. This time is different for each person.

2. Any pair of friends will only spend so long gossiping. Any longer, and it will become dull. We will refer to this time as L. This time is the same for all friends.

3. Gossipping only comes in minute increments. We have no idea why this is, but its true.

4. Gossip must eventually reach everybody. If any given friend has new gossip, then all of your friends must eventually get that gossip.

5. Proper gossipping never includes circles. If A gossips to B and C, and then B gossips to C, then C will hear the news from two different people, and therefore, two different stories.

As an example say you are given the following as input:

Let's start by looking at B. She prefers to gossip for only 1 minute, so she will only be able to gossip with one friend.

We know that she can't gossip with D, as that breaks rule #4

If we have B gossip with C, then C will have 1 minute of gossipping left, and A won't be able to fill his 2 minutes of gossipping needs.

Therefore, we know that B must gossip with A for 1 minute, and A must gossip for 1 minute with C. C and D each have 1 minute of gossipping remaining, so they must both gossip with E.

E needs 2 more minutes of gossip.

If E gossips with F for 2 minutes, then gossip can't ever reach G.

If E gossips with F for 1 minute and G for 1 minute, then F must gossip with H for 1 minute, and H will then gossip with G for 2 minutes. This will create a circle, breaking rule #5.

Therefore, we know that E gossips with G for 2 minutes, G gossips with H for 1 minute, and H gossips with F for 2 minutes.

Our final gossipping tree looks like:

Input will be in the following format, and will be passed to your program via STDIN (or closest alternative):

Max_Gossip_Time [Node0_Ideal_Gossip_Time, Node1_Ideal_Gossip_Time, ...] [[Node0, Node1], [Node0, Node1], ...]

The second array passed is the friend list, and are integers that refer to the positions in Ideal_Gossip_Time array.

The example above would be input as follows:

2 [2, 1, 2, 1, 4, 2, 3, 3] [[0, 1], [0, 2], [1, 2], [1, 3], [2, 3], [2, 4], [3, 4], [4, 5], [4, 6], [5, 7], [6, 7]]

Output should be to STDIO (or closest alternative) in the following format:

[[Node0, Node1, Gossip_Time], [Node0, Node2, Gossip_Time], ...]

On the above example, the output should be similar to:

[[0, 1, 1], [0, 2, 1], [2, 4, 1], [3, 4, 1], [4, 6, 2], [5, 7, 2], [6, 7, 1]]

On both input and output, the friend list can be in any order.

• I didn't notice that you state anywhere that the weights must be integers. Some more test cases would be good. Do you know anything about the complexity class of this problem? – Peter Taylor May 17 '15 at 16:07
• @PeterTaylor I don't think the complexity is too crazy, but I don't know it. The hardest part of this challenge is actually ensuring that there are no cycles as min-maxing the edges will solve everything else. – Nathan Merrill May 17 '15 at 18:51
• I can see a research paper coming out of this! – Optimizer May 27 '15 at 13:23

If it floats, it boats!

The goal of this challenge is to determine whether or not an ASCII-art shape will float. Like any other boat, ASCII boats obey the law of buoyancy: it will float if it displaces an equal mass of water.

ASCII boats are made out of O characters arranged in some contiguous shape (diagonals are connected). There may be trailing spaces, but the whole input is a rectangle (trailing newline optional). Example boat:

O         O
O        O
OOOOOOOOO

The material of the boat has twice the density of water. When a boat is floating, the number of displaced water characters is at least twice number of O character in the boat. Here is an artist's impression of a boat while floating.

O         O
~~~~O        O~~~~
~~~~~OOOOOOOOO~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This boat has 13 O characters, but displaces 19 water characters, so it floats.

The key to floating is the creation of an air pocket. Air pockets can be formed in two ways: either the water cannot reach the pocket (because the boat has walls keeping it out), or air is trapped in the pocket and cannot escape. Here's an example of a capsized boat which can still float (warning: do not attempt at home).

OOOOOOOOO
~~~~O        O~~~~
~~~O         O~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The following shapes aren't boats because they can't float:

OOO
O
O
O
OOO

O         O
O        O
OOOOOOOOO
O
OOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOO
OOOOOOOOO

The Goal

Write a program that, when given an ASCII-art shape, outputs a truthy value if it boats, and a falsey value if it doesn't boat. This is code golf, fewest bytes wins.

• Do you want this to be the simple version (if it displaces enough water it floats) or a more complex version (some of the air spaces may be filled as it sinks, but remaining air spaces are sufficient to keep it afloat). I'm thinking of examples with multiple air spaces with different height walls, so at a certain depth the water can only fill some of them. That is, the weight of the boat is too great to keep all of the air spaces empty, but the remaining ones are sufficient to keep it from sinking any further. – trichoplax Jul 24 '15 at 21:58
• 1. Bearing in mind the example of the capsized boat: are we supposed to test all possible rotations of the input, or just the orientation in which it's supplied? 2. It would be good to have test cases which are right on the edge (one which floats by displacing exactly its mass, and one which is one unit too heavy). 3. Another corner case which isn't mentioned is discontiguous boats. Should we assume that the input is fully connected? – Peter Taylor Jul 24 '15 at 22:04
• @trichoplax I am leaning towards the more complex version, where the boat is "lowered into" the water, which may float various parts until the equilibrium is reached. PeterTaylor I'll say that only the given orientation should be tested. Also, boats will always be contiguous. – PhiNotPi Jul 24 '15 at 22:08
• Why are the non-boat example not boats? Or do you mean they are boats that don't float? – xnor Jul 26 '15 at 7:41
• @xnor They don't float. It was supposed to be an extension of "if it floats, it boats" so the ones that don't float aren't boats. – PhiNotPi Jul 26 '15 at 21:30
• The boat has 13 O characters, and the material is twice the density of water. Doesn't it therefore need to displace 26 characters in order to float? Sure, this shape will float but it will sit lower in the water than you have drawn it. – Level River St Aug 4 '15 at 15:35

Multiples - a wrap battle

Overview

Change cells in multiples to wipe out your opponent, while avoiding being wiped out yourself.

This is a 2 player game, played on a linear string of cells of length L that wrap in a loop. Counting along the loop eventually brings you back to where you started (after L steps). L will be fixed across all battles, and will be a reasonably large prime.

Each cell is controlled by player 1, player 2, or is neutral. These will be indicated as 1, 2 and 0 respectively.

Starting position

Player 2 starts with a cell at position 0 (since all are equivalent).

Player 1 starts with a randomly chosen cell from 1 to floor(L/2).

Player 1 moves first, reflecting the fact that player 1 has further to go to catch player 2.

Taking a turn

Each player begins with a stockpile of 0, and at the start of each turn the player's stockpile is increased by the number of cells that they currently control. The player then takes their turn. They choose any cell they control and specify a number N, which can be any non-negative integer up to and including the size of the stockpile. The stockpile is reduced by this number, and N loop cells are affected as follows:

Starting with the chosen cell as cell 0, each of the cells N, 2N, 3N, ... N*N are changed.

• Choosing 0 means nothing happens, at zero cost.
• Choosing 1 means the cell immediately after the chosen cell is changed, at a cost of 1.
• Choosing 2 means the cell 2 cells on and the cell 4 cells on are changed, at a cost of 2.
• Choosing 3 means the cells 3, 6 and 9 cells on are changed, at a cost of 3.
• In general, choosing N changes N cells at a cost of N.

When a cell is changed it follows the following rules:

• A neutral cell becomes the player's.
• An enemy cell becomes neutral.
• A cell already owned by the player becomes the enemy's

Large N

I expect most moves will choose N considerably smaller, but saving up would allow choosing N considerably larger than L in theory.

Choosing N=L means that all of the changed cells will be the same - the chosen cell, and it will be changed L times.

Choosing N=L-1 means that the L-1 consecutive cells before the chosen cell will all be changed (that is, every cell except the chosen one will be changed).

Winning

If a move leaves no enemy cells remaining, that player wins.

After 1000 moves any player who has more cells than their enemy at the start of 2 consecutive turns in a row (one theirs, one their enemy's, in either order) wins.

After 2000 moves the game is a draw (tie).

Input and output

Input

At the start of a game the player's code will be called with a command line argument of 1 or 2 indicating which player they are (player 1 moves first and is represented by 1s in the loop string).

Each turn the player will be supplied with:

• A string of 0s, 1s and 2s representing the loop.
• An integer S representing the size of their stockpile.
• An integer R representing the size of their opponent's stockpile.
• An integer representing the number of turns taken so far (this will always be an even number for player 1).

Output

The player should output 2 integers:

• The cell C to play from, in the range 0 <= C < L.
• The number of cells to change N, in the range 0 <= N <= S (their current stockpile size).

Sandbox questions

• I like the idea of this being a 1 dimensional game, but I can also see it working on a 2d grid, where each move is applied both horizontally and vertically (either on a square L by L, or with 2 distinct large primes as side lengths). Does anyone have anything for or against either 1d or 2d?

• Any recommendations on what input to provide? I was thinking at least the values of all the cells, but would a history also be good, or better to make the players decide what history to track for themselves rather than providing it? Alternatively they could be memoryless and decide purely based on the current cell formation.

• Is the random starting position a good idea? Would it be better to fix the starting position at floor(L/2), ensuring this number is prime, and let the players taking turns to be player 1 balance out any bias?

Help Indiana Jones and his crew cross the bridge!

This codegolf will solve the Bridge and Torch problem. In this problem, there are multiple people (I'm thinking four) who must all cross a weak bridge to escape an evil dragon as quickly as possible. Because the bridge is weak, only two people can cross the bridge at a time. The whole crew is armed with one torch, which is necessary for 1 or 2 people to cross the bridge. Furthermore, each person takes a certain, integral amount of time to cross the bridge. When two people cross together, they must run at the rate of the slower person. The whole crew needs to quickly figure out how to get all the people across the bridge in the least amount of time to maximize their chances of survival.

Input A list of names of the crew (one word, a-zA-Z) and how long they take to cross the bridge alone.

Output An explanation of who crosses the bridge in which order so that the total time is minimized, and the total time.

Example Input: Indiana 5 Jones 10

Output:

Indiana, Jones 10

Input: A 1 B 2 C 5 D 8

Output:

A, B A C, D B A, B 15

I'm thinking of either just solving this problem with any number of people, or another version in which anyone not at the end (ie. on the first side or on the bridge) after the time limit dies, and the goal is to minimize the number of deaths.

• If it's code-golf it's easier for you as the question poster. If you put a time limit, then different computers will achieve different amounts in that time limit, so you would need to run all the answers on your own computer to give them an official score. – trichoplax Jul 3 '15 at 16:45

A malapropism is the substitution of one word for another that sounds similar, often as a way to make something sound unintentionally humorous. For example, "He's a wolf in cheap clothing" is a malapropism, since the expected word, "sheep's", got replaced by "cheap", which sounds similar but means something different.

A modern version of malapropism is to take scenes from movies and redub the dialog with different words that match the actors mouth movements as a parody. There is a YouTube channel called "Bad Lip Reading" that uses this technique.

I would like to apply the process to some old videos with subtitle files, then watch the videos with the sound turned down to turn it into a long series of malapropisms.

Using mouth movements gives a more flexible range of malapropism so there is some flexibility between different sounds.

Challenge

Create a malapropism generator. I want to be able to feed text from subtitles into the generator and have text which is different, but still matches the mouth movements of the actors.

Input

A string of English words, (already processed to remove punctuation and forced to uppercase).

Output

A string of English words, (same format as input).

Notes

To simplify the challenge, all input words are in upper case, separated by whitespace, with all punctuation except apostrophes removed.

Lets agree to constraint what words "sound like", to be based on the CMUDICT. You may scrub the data so you don't have to worry about comments or special punctuation entries and remove stress numbers.

Lets also agree on the mouth-movements associated with the sounds, called "visemes". Here is a mapping used by Microsoft's SAPI library, which is itself based on Disney animation rules. Microsoft uses the same set of phonemes from ARPABet as CMUDict data.

#   ARPAbet Phoneme

1   AE AH
2   AA
3   AO
4   EH EY UH
5   ER
6   IH IY Y
7   UW W
8   OW
9   AW
10  OY
11  AY
12  HH
13  R
14  L
15  S  Z
16  CH JH SH ZH
17  DH TH
18  F  V
19  D  N  T
20  G  K  NG
21  B  M  P

You should be able to take each English word, convert to a set of phonemes, then to a set of visemes, then produce a list of words with matching visemes and randomly select one of the other words from the list. If a word doesn't match, or doesn't have any alternative, the original word should be copied to output.

Examples

• "HELLO WORLD" "HALLOW WHIRLED"
• "I SEE DEAD PEOPLE" "EYE SEA TED PEOPLE"
• "I WILL BE BACK" "EYE WHEEL PEA BAG"
• "IT WAS BEAUTY KILLED THE BEAST" "INN WAS PUNY GILT THE MIST"
• "MAY THE FORCE BE WITH YOU" "MAY THE FOURS BEE WITH YEW"

Test Cases

Since the words are random, I have selected some pairs of words with unique pronunciation. Your function or program should always return one word when presented with the other:

Input            Output
"AMUSING"        "ABUSING"
"APOGEE"         "APACHE"
"BACKDATING"     "MAGNETIC"
"BALLOONING"     "POLLUTING"
"INVISIBLE"      "INFEASIBLE"
"LAMPS"          "LUMPS"
"SCORN"          "SCORED"
"WEPT"           "WEBBED"

Rules

• You can write a full program or function.
• Input should be taken from stdin or function parameters. Output should be printed through stdout or returned.

Scoring

This is [code-golf]. Submission with least number of bytes, (not including data file(s)) wins.

• Interesting challenge, but I have some small suggestions. 1. The example in the first paragraph (moths vs moss) is inconsistent with the definition which follows, and that could confuse. Maybe borrow one of the test cases, or mention The Importance of being Earnest? 2. Why not link to the YouTube channel? 3. For subheadings, ### is better than *. 4. Since the input is nicely cleaned, I can't see why you specify all input words are in the same case rather than all input words are in upper case. The latter would be more useful, since it matches the CMUDICT file. – Peter Taylor Aug 20 '15 at 17:22
• 5. The mapping of ARPAbet to viseme ID is very long and offputting, and it's not really necessary. If you replace it by a list of groups (AE AH newline ... newline B M P) in preformatted text (indent by four spaces) then it will convey all the necessary information while taking a lot less space. 6. Talking of which, it might be worth mentioning ARPAbet to pre-empt questions in the comments. – Peter Taylor Aug 20 '15 at 17:22
• 7. It's a good idea to be explicit that when you say randomly you mean with equal probability or (easier for those whose libraries give them random floats) with a difference between the greater and least probabilities of no more than 1%. 8. The test cases aren't very useful for testing. The most useful test cases will be where most of the words have one or two possible outputs. E.g. MINT CONDITION STAMPS becomes PINNED CONDITION STUMPS. CATERER is also a good test case because it has a repeated phoneme at the end of the word, which could catch some buggy regex-based approaches. – Peter Taylor Aug 20 '15 at 17:23

Cake

Concerns:

• I'm not sure how well single language questions do. It automatically limits the question to those that already know the language, and those that are willing to learn just for this question. There's no need to limit to Chef with some of the magic this community can produce!

• "selfish/demanding" sounds quite strong and could sound like a bit of a personal attack on Beta Decay. It certainly isn't intended like that, and I expect it will be accepted as intended, but is it better to err on the side of caution?

• Is there any particular reason to limit the challenge to Chef? Writing code that mimics a real world cake recipe could be entertaining in other languages as well. – Dennis Sep 9 '15 at 18:36
• @Dennis, I suppose not! I wouldn't have thought it possible, but I've seen some of the magic this community can produce! – James Webster Sep 10 '15 at 11:39
• I feel like the best tasting submission might just be an actual cake recipe which acts as a no-op, with the actual printing merely tacked on somewhere (eg in Foo) – Sp3000 Sep 11 '15 at 4:12
• @Sp3000, that's possible. I added that rule because with Chef, the ratios for ingredients are often way off. – James Webster Sep 11 '15 at 6:12

Source code ecological footprint

You've just been hired by a German car manufacturing company. Your first task, as an engineer, is to write a program that computes the ecological footprint of source code.

The ecological footprint of a character is computed as follows (you can assume the source code is ASCII-encoded):

Write the character's ASCII code in binary, and count the number of 1's.

For example, A has a footprint of 2, but O is dirtier with a footprint of 5.

The global footprint of a program is the sum of the footprints of its characters.

Your program must accept a string as parameter, compute its ecological footprint, and output it.

There is a subtlety though. As you wish to enter a new, more restrictive market, you need to tune your program so that it behaves differently in "test mode". Thus:

The program should output 0 when it receives the string test as parameter.

Scoring

The source code with the smaller ecological footprint wins (and yes, the answer test is forbidden!)

• This anonymous company doesn't happen to be named Volt's Wagons, does it? – Geobits Sep 25 '15 at 3:20
• @Zach Sorry, I rolled back your edits - the horizontal lines were really harming readability ? and the fact that we output 0 only when we receive test is important ? – Arnaud Sep 25 '15 at 3:33
• You could have removed the hr tags.. Also, I added a lot of punctuation and grammar fixes.. I didn't removed the "output 0 only when we receive test" detail either? I only removed the redundant clause. – Zach Gates Sep 25 '15 at 3:35
• What's the expected output for an empty input string? I'd normally say 0, but "(and only when)" seems to disqualify that. – Geobits Sep 25 '15 at 3:36
• @Zach I've re-reported your changes. Thanks for your help! – Arnaud Sep 25 '15 at 3:45
• Can we assume that the input will never be empty? – Zach Gates Sep 25 '15 at 6:08
• @Zach I would accept empty input and output 0, as the footprint of an empty program is zero ? – Arnaud Sep 25 '15 at 6:50