# Default for Code Golf: Input/Output methods

It looks like we have a consensus that we want certain defaults for the format which answers are expected in for . On that poll, the question arose twice, which input/output formats should be allowed for programs and functions.

So here is another poll. This one works different though. All the input/output methods are independent of each other, so there will be one answer per method. Upvote all you think are reasonable for the default. Downvote those which you think shouldn't be allowed unless the OP explicitly permits them.

To keep this remotely manageable, I have not posted individual answers for all possible inputs for functions. So there are only four: functions can take input/output via their arguments and return values. Or functions can use any method full programs can. I don't think there is any point in (say) allowing programs to take input from STDIN (only) and to allow functions to take input from ARGV (only) or something like that. If you disagree, please leave a comment.

Note: Some votes have been reverted because they were detected as serial voting. If you vote on multiple answers, please leave some time between votes.

A method is allowed if it has 5 net votes and at least twice as many upvotes as downvotes.

### Update

The current results of the polls are now part of the tag wiki. Please notify me, if results change significantly and the wiki should be amended.

• Related (Can numeric input/output be in the form of byte values) – mbomb007 Dec 13 '16 at 16:10
• "The current results of the polls are now part of the tag wiki" which tag wiki? meta wiki has nothing for code-golf tag. ppcg wiki has codegolf.stackexchange.com/tags/code-golf/info but it's missing a lot of answers here. – Sparr Jul 18 '18 at 18:17

# Assembly language / machine code must take input and output as defined by an ABI for the platform that predates the challenge

For example, most commonly used ABIs for x86 state that 32-bit integer outputs are returned in the %eax register. As such, that's a valid way to output a 32-bit integer. However, outputting in, e.g., %esp would not be valid, unless a pre-existing ABI can be located where that's considered a valid method of output.

(Some background for people unaware of assembly language technology: an ABI, or Application Binary Interface, is a specification for how pieces of code within a particular program, on a particular platform, communicate with each other via the state of the processor. Most ABIs specify specific memory addresses and/or registers to be used for the communication.)

This is outright intended as a competing answer to the other assembly-language-related answers, because I feel they're too permissive and could lead to loopholes in which bytes are moved from the program to a selection of a register/memory address. (See this answer and the corresponding question for more detail.)

• Assembly is free for platform etc it can have arg as one register and return its result as a flag... If it has to communicate or to be used to C language programs than yes has to follow API... – user58988 Feb 4 '19 at 22:27

# Image output may consist of a matrix or 2d array for raster images

This is relevant e.g. for challenges. (e.g. for languages that otherwise have no way of writing an image file or opening a window for the graphical display)

# SQL-based languages can output via SELECT or PRINT

We have countless examples of highly upvoted answers sending SQL output to either the results pane (via SELECT) or to the messages pane (via PRINT), depending on which works the best and is shorter for a particular challenge.

Both are acceptable.

(This uses terminology from MS SQL Management Studio, other platforms/clients likely have equivalents.)

Other outputs may be possible as well, such as outputting graphical results to the spatial results pane.

# An array may be represented as a buffer terminated with a sentinel value

This can be applied to both inputs and outputs for languages such as C and assembly. This is the default for C strings (a buffer of char, terminated with 0), but can be applied to any other data type.

As a more concrete example:

• An input array of positive integers can be taken as a single pointer of uint32_t or any other convenient integer type, which is assumed to terminate with a single zero.
• For an output array of positive integers, a C function can take an output pointer as the start of the buffer, write several numbers on that buffer, and then write a zero at the end.

It should be noted that the sentinel value must be the one that is guaranteed to not appear in any valid input or output, since their presence breaks the premise of the I/O method. For example, if the input may contain zeros, you cannot use zero as the sentinel value for the input array.

# Functions may generate different output via different exceptions if they could be caught using different code

For example, in C++, you could use throw 1; and throw true; to output two distinct values. They could be caught by catch(int) and catch(bool) in a try block respectively. (In most other languages, you could only throw values in an exception class.)

# Numerical input and output can be given as a string of digits and vice-versa

As long as the input/output format is consistent, you may take a numerical output such as f(123) as a string f("123") and vice-versa. This will also open up other string methods, such as taking a number as a list of digits as per this consensus.

Note that if different behaviours are expected for numbers with leading zeroes, then you will have to take input as a string instead, since strings with leading zeroes will be mapped to the same number.

• "If may not" ~> "You may not"? – Jonathan Frech Sep 18 '19 at 10:10

# Image output may consist of a pixel-shader

A pixel-shader is a function that takes the (x,y) coordinates of a pixel as an input, and outputs the color of this pixel (e.g. a scalar for grayscale images, a tuple for color images, a boolean value for binary images etc.)

This is relevant e.g. for challenges. (also for GLSL / Shadertoy answers.)

• Isn't this explicitly disallowed for graphical-output at the moment? I suspect it had a good reason too. Same for your other suggestion here. – Mast Nov 25 '19 at 9:56
• @Mast It seems to me that the tag wiki only addresses ASCII-art, but these two types do not seem to be captured, that is why I also thought it would be a good idea to clarify that explicitly. – flawr Nov 25 '19 at 10:15
• I find it weird that this lets solutions not specify the size of the image. Or does the function gave to produce some different value indicating out-of-bounds? – xnor Nov 25 '19 at 10:25
• @xnor The size of the image should be specified, but I think the key is that if you want a bigger resolution of the same image you could just sample (x,y) more finely as an alternative to defining a bigger resolution in the start. – flawr Nov 25 '19 at 10:59
• @flawr I'm not clear how you'd sample more finely. Are (x,y) floats? – xnor Nov 25 '19 at 11:02
• If we normalize the coordinates e.g. to [0,1]^2 then (x,y) could be interpreted as floats, right. If you're using integers then the program itself also takes the limits (e.g. in shadertoy this is implicit) – flawr Nov 25 '19 at 12:39

# Languages that output on program completion can assume termination even when built to hang for the purpose of providing output.

That is, if a program is built to not a terminate, and requires output while running (say, for an Internal Truth Machine, or Scream Very Loudly, etc.), the program can assume to crash or be manually stopped to verify the output scales appropriately.

The argument for this is that several languages (such as Processing[Java], for example) will not print output unless a certain state is reached (the end of a Draw statement in Processing, per se). This means that programs stuck in While Loops would never provide any output. Languages like GolfScript, though it has a Print function, also doesn't actually Print the output until the program is complete - it holds the print in a buffer until the program eventually stops (for any reason, even interrupting). Likewise, GS prints the stack when it closes for any reason (depending on your interpreter; TIO fails at this) - so filling the stack with infinite As then waiting for a crash would also be within this parameter.

Several languages would otherwise fail infinitely-printing hanging challenges due to the act they wouldn't ever be capable of printing given the assumed infinite time and memory, which is the main argument for allowing this sort of output.

# black-box functions to be taken as input can be assumed to be predefined under a given name only if they cannot be passed as an argument.

This holds for languages that do have classical functions, but cannot pass around functions like other values. This holds for instance for: Java up to version 7

This proposition is the opposite of that one which does not have this restriction.

• -1 because I don't think this is well-defined (e.g. are functions in Underload passed as an argument? What about Python's functions, which aren't black box because you can inspect their bytecode?) – Esolanging Fruit Nov 26 '17 at 23:39
• Also, Don't allow / ask for different things in languages with different capabilities (related issue). – Esolanging Fruit Nov 26 '17 at 23:45
• @EsolangingFruit That doesn't seem to be the case here, it's not the challenge asking for different stuff for different languages, it's more like allowing more languages to compete by using more lenient consensuses for them, since otherwise they couldn't compete at all. – Erik the Outgolfer Dec 10 '17 at 12:14
• @EriktheOutgolfer Fair, but my view is that, to avoid ambiguity and rule-lawyering, we should allow all languages to do this. – Esolanging Fruit Dec 10 '17 at 20:57

# Functions may output by calling a callback function or event

The callback function should be provided using a valid input method.

Example in JavaScript that outputs Hello world!:

f=>f("Hello world!")


This may be shorter than returning a value in some languages:

import random as r
def f(x):
q=r.random()
return(q+q/2)/2


As opposed to:

import random as r
def f(x,g):
q=r.random()
g((q+q/2)/2)

• I don't see why this should be useful, considering you can just return the result. – Esolanging Fruit Feb 11 '17 at 2:27
• Never mind, I see why this might be useful. Upvoted. – Esolanging Fruit Feb 13 '17 at 0:16
• @Challenger5 Please explain why. – haykam Feb 28 '17 at 12:34
• @haykam In a language like Python, something like import os [\n] def f(k):return os.system(k) is longer than import os [\n] def f(k,g):g(os.system(k)) – Esolanging Fruit Feb 28 '17 at 17:51
• @Challenger5, the point of specifying default I/O methods is to allow answers to use idiomatic I/O, not to allow golfing a byte off print. – Peter Taylor Mar 1 '17 at 15:04
• @PeterTaylor Might it be more idiomatic in some languages to use continuation-passing style rather than returning? – Esolanging Fruit Apr 26 '17 at 16:49

# Functions may take input from the output of a callback function

The callback function should be provided using a valid input method.

Complementing

## A full program may be input or output any time a function could

If we can do this:

x=>y=>x+y


Then we can do this:

print("print(int(input())+"+input()+")")

• That Python code is...a curried program. what. – CalculatorFeline Jun 20 '17 at 2:18
• +1 from me. If functions can return other functions, full programs should be able to print other full programs – MilkyWay90 Jun 16 '19 at 18:25

# Classes, objects or other entities may have separate methods to read the input and return the result

This includes the constructor and destructor.

• Can the destructor return the result? That seems to be along the same lines as outputting to /dev/null. – Esolanging Fruit May 23 '17 at 3:15
• I don't believe a C++ destructor is allowed to return anything. – Riking Jan 11 '18 at 8:21
• Is it okay if the destruct function output something? – l4m2 Mar 8 '18 at 12:09

# Property setters may take input from the set value

• This could use some elaboration. Why is this not a special case of a function taking input as function arguments? And why would anyone answer a PPCG question with a property setter? – Peter Taylor Mar 23 '17 at 8:55

## Functions are allowed to overwrite global data structures as its output

The premise of this is that your language does not support built-in return values.

For example, Assembly language doesn't have a built-in way of returning values, therefore a global accumulator is permitted as a return value.

In Scratch, there are no functions (only procedures), therefore global variables are allowed as the output of the function.

In stack-based languages, functions take arbitary items from the stack, and modify the stack. The return value is therefore stored onto the stack.

• In Scratch, variables can be outputted via say. And in a most stack-based languages, there are commands to output. So only if your language has NO output method. – A username Mar 30 at 19:54

# A program or function taking input by reference may output by modifying the input value in place

A complement to this

For example, in rust, one might write

fn a(v:&mut Vec<i32>){v.push(7);}


fn b(mut v: Vec<i32>)->Vec<i32>{v.push(7);return v;}


or

fn c(v:&mut Vec<i32>)->&mut Vec<i32>{v.push(7);return v;}


# Functions may return multiple values, even if the question only asks for one.

As long as one of them is the requested output, the function is considered valid.

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• This would definitely cause problems for decision problem challenges if you could just return [True, False] no matter the input. – xnor 1 hour ago

# Programs may use the camera and microphone

I wouldn't expect to see this very often, but it could be applicable to my upcoming challenge.

• This has my vote – TheDoctor Nov 4 '14 at 23:40
• I don't think this should be a default. Definitely fine if asker specifies it as a valid input format for the question! Excited to see your upcoming challenge involving this. – hmatt1 Nov 5 '14 at 2:12

# Cellular automata and 2d languages may output by interfacing with a user-built structure

Many of these languages do not have any other way to produce (non-visual) output. By "interfacing", I mean additional structures being created by the user to interact with the existing code in a way that the program provides only the necessary information (such as some sort of serial representation of the outputted values) in a way that could feasibly be used by the user's program to control another turing-complete automaton (so not in a tiny space in the middle of the program, or in an area that will be overwritten).

# Cellular automata and 2d languages may take input by interfacing with a user-built structure

Many of these languages do not have any other way to take input. By "interfacing", I mean additional structures being created by the user to interact with the existing code in a way that provides only the necessary information (such as some sort of serial representation of the inputted values) in a way that could feasibly be used by the user's program and controlled by another turing-complete automaton (so not in a tiny space in the middle of the program, or in an area that will be overwritten).

i.e. argv[0] in C or $0 in shell-like languages. • This is a default loophole. If taking input through the executable name, those bytes count towards the score. – Dingus Jan 6 at 1:57 • @Dingus no, as in the user must rename the executable to a string, and that string is one of the inputs. It is not stored program data – pxeger Jan 6 at 7:51 • I don't really see how this isn't stored program data (where the data is one of the inputs). Leaving that aside, how is this different from hardcoding? – Dingus Jan 6 at 10:50 • In some sense I guess this isn't much different from taking input from a file, which is allowed. But I imagine that file is meant to be a fixed target, not a moving one. – Dingus Jan 6 at 11:02 • I don't really see how this is stored data. Instead of running ./program arg1 arg2, you run mv program arg0; ./arg0 arg1 arg2. – pxeger Jan 6 at 11:10 # A natural number may be represented as a collection of n empty collections, and a string as a collection of such numbers In languages that do not have numbers or strings but do have lists, stacks, or other collections, a natural number (including 0) may be represented by a collection of empty collections, where the length of the outer collection represents the natural number. So [] would represent 0, [[], [], []] would represent 3, and so on. Strings may be represented as collections of these natural numbers, as Unicode codepoints are unsigned. # Functions may output by setting the default variable(s) Perl has a "default" scalar $_. Unless specifically overridden by the =~ operator, regular expressions and such will operate on this variable. It also has @_, the "default" array, and %_, the "default" hash.

• I don't see how this is any different than hardcoding I/O with variables, which is not allowed. – user45941 Dec 5 '17 at 20:35
• @Mego What do you mean? I'm not entirely sure what "hardcoding I/O with variables" refers to. – Nissa Dec 5 '17 at 21:21
• codegolf.meta.stackexchange.com/a/2423/45941 – user45941 Dec 5 '17 at 21:23
• Ah, I see then. – Nissa Dec 5 '17 at 21:26
• This is basically Ans in TI-Basic, and isn't too different from the top of the stack in stack based languages. Following functions if defined in the right way don't need to specify the variable name to use it. It's only technically a variable, but don't need to be used like a variable. I don't see good reasons to disallow it. – jimmy23013 May 28 '19 at 20:49

# In stack-based languages, inputs may be pushed onto the stack at the start of the program, and the output may be the top element on the stack at the end of the program

This has already been proposed for functions, but it should also be allowed for full programs.

# Source files or libraries may output via the return value importing them

For example, this PHP code has no effects as a complete program:

<?php return 'Hello, world!';


But as a library named '1.php', the return value could be printed to stdout using this:

<?php echo include '1.php';


# eval is considered an interpreter and the eval'd code may output via the return value

For example, this PHP code has no effects as a complete program in the php interpreter:

return 'Hello, world!';


But the return value is accessible using the eval interpreter:

<?php echo eval("return 'Hello, world!';");

• Just for clarification, this only applies in challenges that allow snippets, correct? I don't think you're suggesting we allow snippets by default, but just to be safe... – ETHproductions Feb 11 '17 at 2:22
• @ETHproductions Rewrote to avoid mentioning that. – jimmy23013 Feb 12 '17 at 2:41

# Program may take input from environment variables

Maybe... We don't have this discussed yet (?)

• I'm going to say no, because this is equivalent to taking input from a pre-defined name in e.g. Bash – pxeger Jan 5 at 20:42
• @pxeger They are not variables in most languages, since you cannot modify its value. In some language, function invoke may pass arguments by position or by name (e.g. Python's print("hello", end="") pass an argument end by its name. If reading command line arguments considered valid as they are by position, why not accept environment variables as they are by name. – tsh Jan 6 at 1:54
• @pxeger and certain language consider it as pre-defined variable name could not be a valid reason to reject. Bubblegum considers texts from stdin as a special variable i before its execution (incase you match the hash restriction), should I consider stdin is another equipment of taking from pre-defined variable name? – tsh Jan 6 at 2:02

# Functions may get input from predefined variables in languages where this is standard

In some BASIC dialects, the standard way to implement functions is to use GOSUB (similar to CALL in assembly). You can't pass variables to GOSUB, so function arguments/returns are just global variables. If you need a function that takes a number as input, and outputs that number multiplied by 2, the normal way to do this would be something like:

@TIMES2
OUT=IN*2
RETURN


To call it, you would do

IN=7
GOSUB @TIMES2
'result is in variable OUT


The exact same process is allowed in assembly languages.

• I don't think it's necessary to allow things that are "Kind of like functions" just because a language doesn't have functions. As long as an answer can be written as a full program using existing allowed I/O I don't think we need a special exception to allow answers in "function-like behavior". – Kamil Drakari Oct 27 '17 at 19:26
• Then why do we allow the same thing in "assembly" languages? – 12Me21 Oct 27 '17 at 19:53
• Answers talking about "Assembly" refer to any language which does not have an output other than storing things in a special register. If a program can be written in the language which inputs and outputs in a more standard way then it doesn't need those allowances. – Kamil Drakari Oct 27 '17 at 20:07
• Registers in assembly language are analogous to local vars and temporaries (like a return-value object) in languages like C. Languages that don't have locals or return-values don't have anything like registers. I didn't downvote, though; if the language has a gosub and real-world (non-golf) usage does write "functions" this way, there's certainly an argument to be made. The justification by analogy with asm is pretty weak, though. In asm you need registers just to evaluate expressions, and there are only a small fixed number of them. – Peter Cordes Oct 8 '19 at 18:17