I've been playing with some ideas for a challenge to poke fun at java virtual machines and was pondering a brainfuck virtual machine (three bit bus!) and I got to wondering if there are any brainfuck variants that support closures, function calls, and function references.


1 Answer 1


You could be interested in Brainfuct. It's Brainfuck, but with lambdas, and great functional programming features. For example, in Brainfuct, the cat program looks like this.


In this program, two functions are declared, main function (+@), and first function (>,.<@). @ calls the function under pointer. As you can see, there is lambda (functions can read state - i.e. tape), function calls (@), and function references (every function (with exception for main function) is a number).

  • \$\begingroup\$ So we have two out of three, function calls and function references, but not closures. \$\endgroup\$
    – hildred
    Commented Dec 30, 2013 at 20:25
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @hildred: What is your definition of closure? This is Brainfuck, not language with local variables. There is just tape - and you can access it. \$\endgroup\$
    – null
    Commented Dec 30, 2013 at 20:27

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